Glossary and Declension Review

There's not much in the way of new content here; this is a possibly convenient English-to-Latin glossary of all gamer-friendly vocabulary from this series, plus new words (in purple), with a review (i.e., I pasted in the tables again) of the declension patterns.

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  • Nouns. My goodness, there are a lot of these.
  • Adjectives
  • Verbs
  • Prepositions, adverbs, and so forth
  • Obviously the easiest way to find a specific word will be to use your browser's search-the-page function.

    Declension Paradigms

  • First- and Second-Declension Adjectives (-us, -a, -um)
  • Third-Declension Nouns (vespertilio, -onis)
  • Third-Declension Nouns, I-Stem (nox, noctis)
  • Third-Declension Nouns, neuter (numen, numinis)
  • Third-Declension Adjectives (immortalis, -e)
  • Fourth-Declension Nouns (spiritus, -us)

  • Vocabulary

    I have included nearly everything mentioned so far. Anything else you need will likely be found in a dictionary; if you don't have one at hand, there's a good one online on the Perseus Project website.

    When translating from English, you will, of course, often look up an English word to find the Latin equivalent. This is perfectly natural behavior and nothing you should feel ashamed of. I recommend that you double-check the Latin words in the Latin-to-English part of the dictionary as well, so you can see the whole range of meaning for each word and make sure that you are using the best one. (Even better, use one of the bigger dictionaries that show the words in sentences, although admittedly that's only helpful if you can read Latin.) Fortunately for you, the words on this page have already gone through this process, so that you can be assured that the Latin vocabulary here is of the highest quality -- or at least that it had some reason for showing up in parts 1-4 and so is repeated here.

    (A general and somewhat simplified note on spelling: Latin words that that contain a "J" can also be spelled with an "I"; I tend to prefer the latter. Words that have a "V" can also be spelled with a "U"; I tend to prefer the former. Isn't that wacky?)


    The nouns below each belong to one of four Latin declensions (lacking here only the Fifth Declension, which you can peek at off-site). The nominative, genitive, and gender are given for each noun. To find the "stem" for each noun, lop off the ending of the genitive (-ae, -i, -is, or -us, depending on declension) ; all endings will be added to this, with the following exceptions: (1) The nominative singular is always as given; (2) the accusative forms of neuter nouns will be identical to the nominative forms.

    Nouns with a genitive ending in -ae belong to the First Declension and are declined like the feminine (the middle column) of -us, -a, -um adjectives.

    Nouns with a genitive ending in -i belong to the Second Declension and are declined like the masculine or neuter (the left or right column) of -us, -a, -um adjectives.

    Nouns with a genitive ending in -is belong to the Third Declension. These are subdivided as follows: Most are declined like vespertilio, -onis ("bat"). Those with a genitive plural ending in -ium are mostly declined like nox, noctis ("night"). Neuter nouns are declined like numen, numinis ("divine power"). Any exceptions are given.

    Nouns with a genitive in -us belong to the Fourth Declension and are declined like spiritus, -us ("spirit").

  • abomination: nefas (n.), any unholy thing or impious deed; such a deviation from the norm that the word doesn't even get declined! -- well, it doesn't, for whatever reason. -- Also: monstrum, -i (n.) (monster, apparition, bad omen); prodigium, -i (n.) (monster, bad omen, prodigy).
  • agreement: concordia, -ae (f.) ("together-heartedness"); conjunctio, -onis (f.). ("joining together")
  • alchemy: alchemia, -ae (f.), chemia, -ae (f.); ars chemica.
  • air: aer, aeris (f.) There are others; this is the one that shows up on charts of the four elements and so forth.
  • altar: ara, -ae (f.)
  • animal , living thing: animal, animalis (n.); see also "beast." -- (Except for lacking the -e in the nom. and acc. singular, animal is declined like neuter column of immortalis, immortale).
  • art, skill: ars, artis (f.) (gen. pl. artium)
  • astrologer, fortune-teller: astrologus, -i (m.). Also mathematicus, -i (m.) and Chaldaeus, -i (m., after a people from the Mysterious [Near] East)
  • bat: vespertilio, -onis (m.).
  • beast, wild animal: bestia, bestiae (f.)
  • beauty: forma, formae (f.); or pulchritudo, pulchritudinis (f.)
  • betrayal, treason, treachery: proditio, -onis (f.) (with a sense of "revealing something" to the enemy) ; perfidia, -ae (f.) ("faithlessness"/"deceit"); perduellio, -onis (f.) ("high treason," open hostility to one's country)
  • connection:conligatio, -onis (f.; also spelled colligatio); conjunctio, -onis (f.)
  • blood: sanguis, sanguinis (m.) -- Also a nearly identical neuter form sanguen, sanguinis (n.)
  • body (living or dead): corpus, corporis ( n.) -- (NOT corpus, corpi!)
  • bond, chain, fetter: vinculum, -i (n.) or catena, -ae (f.). --[Both can be the actual metal clanky things, or a figurative "tie that binds."]
  • bone: os, ossis (n.) (gen. pl. ossium)
  • book: liber, libri (m.)
  • bride: nupta, -ae (f.)
  • brother: frater, fratris (m.)
  • cat: feles, felis (f.)
  • children: liberi, -orum (m. plural)
  • church: ecclesia, -ae (f.) -- Originally a Greek word meaning "(political) assembly."
  • city: urbs, urbis (f.) (gen. pl. urbium) [in later Latin, civitas, civitatis (f.)]
  • command, order: iussum, -i (m.) (also spelled jussum), among others. -- "By order of": iussu or jussu (from a fourth-declension relative of iussum that exists only in the ablative), followed by a name or word in the genitive: iussu principis = "by order of the prince." -- (See "law," "order.")
  • contest, struggle: certamen, certaminis ( n.)
  • corpse, cadaver: cadaver, cadaveris ( n.) -- Also corpus mortuum, "dead body" (see "body").
  • count: comes, comitis (m. or f.) (later Latin usage; originally a companion or retainer, especially of a general or ruler)
  • crime, wicked deed: scelus, sceleris (n.) (NOT scelus, sceli!)
  • crow: cornix, cornicis (f.)
  • curse: exsecratio, -onis (f.). -- "curse tablet," "ritual curse": defixio, -onis (f.), devotio, -onis (f.)
  • danger: periculum, -i (n.)
  • darkness/gloom: tenebrae, -arum (f. plural) (also "shadows," "lurking-places," "the infernal regions" -- this is a good solid word to know.)
  • daughter: filia, -ae (f.)
  • demon: daemon, daemonis (m.) (originally a semi-divine spirit, neither good nor bad). Also: daemonium, -i (n.).
  • desire: cupiditas, -tatis (f.); cupido, cupidinis (m.)
  • dragon: draco, draconis (m.); see also "serpent."
  • dream: somnium, somnii (n.)
  • dryad: (hama-)dryas, dryadis (f.)
  • duke: dux, ducis (m. or f.) (later Latin usage; this is the word for a general or military leader)
  • earth, land, ground: terra, -ae (f.) (cf. "soil"). The planet; "land" as opposed to "sea"; a particular country; "earth" as one of the four elements.
  • element, essence: elementum, -i (n.); essentia, -ae (f.). --"Quintessence": quinta essentia (gen. quintae essentiae), "fifth element").
  • embrace, circuit, encirclement: amplexus, -us (m.) (fourth declension)
  • emperor: imperator, imperatoris (m.) = "commander"; before there were emperors, a title awarded to victorious generals.
  • enemy: inimicus, -i (m.).; inimica, -ae (f.) (a personal enemy); hostis, hostis (m. or f.; gen. pl. hostium) (a national or public enemy; often used collectively in the singular as in English: e.g., "we have defeated the enemy in battle," when in fact you've killed a whole buncha guys)
  • fate: fatum, -i (n.)
  • father: pater, patris (m.). Also parens, parentis (m.; gen. pl. parentium); cf. "sire."
  • fear: timor, timoris (m.) [to say "fear of": timor, followed by the genitive; e.g., timor mortis, "fear of death"]
  • fire: ignis, ignis (m.) (gen. pl. ignium). -- Also incendium, -i (n.)
  • flesh, caro, carnis (f.)
  • follower: sectator, -oris (m.). -- Also perhaps ductus, -i (m.), "someone led," which is another reason why this does not make for a suitable title for a Sabbat pack leader.
  • force, strength, violence: vis (f.) (The genitive and dative singular of vis is lacking in classical Latin; later genitive vis; acc. sing. vim; abl. sing. vi. Plural: vires, virium, other forms declined like a third-declension noun.) -- See also "power."
  • frenzy, madness, fury, rage: furor, furoris (m.)
  • friend: amicus, -i (m.); amica, -ae (f.)
  • ghost: larva, -ae (f.), manes, -ium (m. pl.), lemures, lemurum (m. pl.), inferi, -orum (m. pl.). You can also use imago, imaginis (f.), umbra, -ae (f.), simulacrum, -i (f.), anima, -ae (f.), and so on. See my earlier discussion.
  • gift: donum, -i (n.)
  • god, goddess: deus, dei (m.); dea, deae (f.). (deus: vocative deus, nominative plural dei or di. -- dea: dative and ablative plural deabus). -- "Heavenly gods, gods above" = di superi; "Infernal gods, gods below" = di inferni. -- Also: numen, numinis ( n.), a divine spirit, godhead, power of a god; lar, laris (m.), a guardian deity of the home or of a place or people; Penates, Penatium (m. plural), deities of the hearth; divus, -i or diva, -ae, god, deity; especially "a deified person." -- See also "spirit."
  • gore: cruor, cruoris (m.)
  • grave, tomb: sepulcrum, -i (n.); tumulus, -i (m.) ("mound")
  • graveyard: sepulcretum, -i (n.). -- This word appears only once in classical Latin.
  • guard: custodia, -ae (f.) (the act); custos, custodis (m.) (the person)
  • hatred: odium, -i (n.). -- Also invidia, -ae (f.) (envy, jealousy, grudge, prejudice, unpopularity).
  • heart: cor, cordis ( n.) (both literal and figurative). According to Lewis's Elementary Latin Dictionary, there is "no genitive plural." -- Also: pectus, pectoris ( n.) (lit. "chest" or "breast-bone," but figuratively "heart, feelings, emotions"); animus, -i (m.) ("courage").
  • heaven, sky: caelum, -i (n.) -- in later Latin also spelled coelum; also aether, aetheris (m.), accusative singular aethera.
  • hiding-place, den: latebra, -ae (f.) (usually used in the plural with sing. meaning) (also: sometimes tenebrae, -arum, "darkness, gloom, shadows" is used in this sense)
  • house, household, home: domus, -us or -i (f.). Domus has an odd declension.
  • hunger: fames, famis (f.)
  • hunt: venatio, -onis (f.)
  • husband: maritus, -i (m.) -- Also coniunx, coniugis (m.), or use "man" (vir)
  • infidel: infidelis, -is (m.) Also as an adjective, infidelis, -e, meaning "untrustworthy" or "faithless."
  • insanity, madness, mania: insania, -ae (f.)
  • king: rex, regis (m.)
  • kingdom: regnum, -i (n.)
  • kiss: osculum, -i (n.); basium, -i (n.); or suavium, -i (n.). -- These tend to mean kisses (respectively) of friendship or familial affection, of romantic or spouse-ly love, and of passion, although there's some overlap, but it seems from this that you wouldn't (e.g.) give suavia to your son or daughter, unless you belonged to one of those families.
  • knight: eques, equitis (m.) -- Incidentally: Knight Templar: eques templi (sing.), equites templi (plural). I stress this because I have moments ago seen the word "Templarus" online in a gamer context; the adjective would have to be (and, in fact, is) templaris, -e, but to say (if you really felt the need to do so) "I am a knight Templar" it seems you'd more likely phrase it "I am a knight of the Temple." Various real-world Templar-inspired organizations call themselves the "Equites Templi" or members of the "Ordo Templaris" (Templar Order).
  • lady, mistress: domina, dominae (f.)
  • law: lex, legis (f.); dictum, -i (= "decree, command")
  • leader: dux, ducis (m.) ("leader," "general"; later "duke"); ductor, -toris ("leader"); princeps, principis (m.; "chief," "prince"); imperator, -oris (m.; "commander-in-chief," "emperor"); praefectus, -i ("overseer," "governor," "commander"; "someone placed in charge" by a greater authority); rex, regis (m.) ("king").
  • leadership, generalship: ductus, -us (fourth declension). -- Also means "conducting," "leading," "drawing" (e.g., "of water"). Does not mean the person who is the "leader," unless you are an ignorant Sabbat vampire.
  • life: vita, vitae (f.)
  • light: lux, lucis (f.). -- Also lumen, luminis ( n.) ("light-source").
  • lightning, lightning-bolt: fulmen, fulminis ( n.). -- "struck by lightning": fulmine ictus (-a, -um)
  • lord, master: dominus, domini (m.)
  • love: amor, amoris (m.)
  • lover: amator, amatoris (m.), amatrix, amatricis (f.)
  • machine , engine, device, strategem: machina, -ae (f.); machinatio, -onis (f.) (also with the sense of "machination")
  • mage, magician, sorceror: magus, -i (m.); sagus, -i (m.). Cf. "astrologer" and "prophet."
  • magic: magia, -ae (f.). Also ars magica (or plural artes magicae); goetia, -ae (f., "sorcery, enchantment"); veneficium, -i (n., "poisoning, witchcraft"); maleficium, -i (n., "evil-doing, witchcraft"); theurgia, -ae (f., "theurgy"). -- "Necromancy": perhaps ars necromantica.
  • man: vir, viri (m.) ("man" as opposed to woman, "husband," or "worthy, upper-class man" as opposed to more common folk) --(except for the nominative singular, decline like the masculine of an -us, -a, -um adjective); homo, hominis (m.) ("man" as opposed to animal; "person, human being"; also a general term for human males of lower social status or moral worth)
  • mask, character: persona, -ae (f.) (and larva, -ae (f.), which can also mean "ghost")
  • mind : mens, mentis (f.) (gen. pl. mentium); Also animus, -i (m.). -- "To have in mind" = in animo habere.
  • monster, portent, omen: monstrum, -i (n.); prodigium, -i (n.) (any unnatural thing that shows the gods are angry).
  • moon: luna, -ae (f.)
  • mother: mater, matris (f.). -- Also parens, parentis (f.; gen. pl. parentium); cf. "sire."
  • movement, motion: motus, -us (m.) (fourth declension). -- motus animi = "emotion."
  • name: nomen, nominis ( n.) -- "in the name of": in nomine followed by word in the genitive.
  • night: nox, noctis (f.) (gen. pl. noctium) -- "by night": noctu
  • nothing: nihil or nil (n.) (not declined, although from a related word one sees the genitive nihili and ablative nihilo)
  • nymph: nympha, -ae (f.)
  • order: ordo, ordinis (m.) -- your all-purpose word for most English meanings of "order" (except "command"): the Order of Hermes, law and order, the order that episodes of "Law and Order" should be watched in. -- For "command," see "command."
  • owl: bubo, -onis (m.) (especially "horned owl"); strix, strigis (f.) ("screech-owl," and also a vampire-like harpy thingy)
  • pain: dolor, doloris (m.) (physical or emotional)
  • pallor, paleness: pallor, -oris (m.)
  • peace: pax, pacis (f.)
  • poet: poeta, poetae (m.) (one of the few first-declension masculine nouns); vates, -is (m.) (an inspired or mad poet, roughly "bard")
  • poison : venenum, -i (n.); also virus, -i (n.) (poison, venom, medicine). See "potion."
  • potion , drink: potio, -onis (f.) (a drink, draught, poison, magical potion); also medicamentum, -i (n.), medicine, drug, poison. See "poison."
  • power: potentia, -ae (f.) (might, force, power; influence, authority); potestas, potestatis (f.) (ability, control, jurisdiction, self-control). -- Potentia seems to imply, as its first meaning, physical power, while potestas is internal ability, but in their extended range of meanings the two can be largely synonymous.
  • pretense, hypocrisy, simulation, "masquerade": (dis)simulatio, -onis (f.) (dissimulatio is hiding something true; simulatio is pretending something false). -- It would not be hard to imagine a word personatio, -onis (f.), from persona ("mask") and thus with the same "playing a role" overtones as "masquerade," if that's important to you)
  • priest: sacerdos, -dotis (m. or f.); pontifex, -ficis (m., "pontiff"). -- Christian hierarchy: episcopus, -i (m., "bishop"); archiepiscopus, i (m., "archbishop"). -- For uniquely Roman priesthoods see this site.
  • priesthood: sacerdotium, -i (m.)
  • prince: princeps, principis (m.) ("Chief," "first citizen"; also used of a Roman "emperor" in a more civilian sense). -- For "son of a king" Romans just said, well, regis filius ("son of a king").
  • prophecy, prediction: vaticinatio, -onis (f.) (related to vates [see next entry] and not related to where the Pope lives). -- Also: praedictio, -onis (f.), praedictum, -i (n.); prophetia, -ae (f.) in the Bible.
  • prophet, soothsayer, fortune-teller: propheta, -ae (m.) (the Biblical word, from Greek). -- Also vates, -is (m.) (an inspired poet, "bard"), haruspex, haruspicis (m.) (a particular kind of ancient Etruscan diviner), sortilegus, -i (m.) or sortilega, -ae (f.) ("lot-reader"), fatidicus, -i (m.) or fatidica, -ae (f.) ("fate-speaker"), hariolus, -i (m.), sagus, -i (m.) or saga, -ae (f.), divinator, -toris (m.) or divinatrix, -tricis (f.), and on and on. See also "astrologer," "mage," "witch," &c.
  • punishment, penalty: poena, -ae (f.) (usually plural). "to pay the penalty" = poenas dare (from do, dare, "give"). -- "Punishment in kind," punishment that fits the crime: talio, -onis (f.)
  • purification rite: lustratio, -onis (f.)
  • queen: regina, reginae (f.)
  • raven: corvus, -i (m.)
  • rite, ritual, ceremony: ritus, ritus (m.) (fourth declension) -- also means "custom" or "manner"
  • road, way: via, viae (f.)
  • rose: rosa, rosae (f.)
  • sadness: tristitia, -ae (f.) How did I miss this one before?
  • satyr: satyrus, -i (m.)
  • serpent: serpens, serpentis (m. or f.) (gen. pl. serpentium) -- also anguis, -is (m. or f.; gen. pl. anguium) or coluber, colubri (m.) (fem. colubra, -ae). -- "serpent-born": anguigena, -ae (m.) or serpentigena, -ae (m.)
  • shade, shadow: umbra, -ae (f.) (also = "ghost")
  • sire, begetter, creator: genitor, genitoris (m.); genetrix, genetricis (f.). -- See also "father" and "mother."
  • sister: soror, sororis (f.)
  • slave, servant: servus, -i (m.); serva, -ae (f.). -- Also famulus or famula, "servant, attendant," likely a slave (declined as you might expect).
  • sleep: somnus, -i (m.); sopor, soporis (m.) ("deep sleep, slumber")
  • soil, earth, ground: humus, -i (f.: not m., despite endings!). -- Also "soil" in the figurative sense of a country or region, like "American soil." -- The special "locative" form humi by itself means "on the ground" (compare domi below).
  • son: filius, -i (m.)
  • song, poem, spell: carmen, carminis ( n.); cantus, cantus (m., fourth declension).
  • sorcery: magia, -ae (f.); goetia, -ae (f.); see "magic."
  • soul: anima, -ae (f.) (principle of life, what animates a body and goes on to the afterlife); animus, -i (m.) (rational soul, mind, intellect).
  • spell, chant, incantation: carmen, carminis (n.). -- Also incantamentum, -i (n.); cantus, -us (m., fourth declension). -- "Magic words" = voces magicae (see "voice").
  • spider: aranea, -ae (f.). -- spider web: araneum, -i (n.)
  • spirit: spiritus, -us (m., fourth declension), originally "breath, breeze" but later a "spirit" in the sense of incorporeal entity. -- Also anima, -ae (f., the life-principle that animates a person); daemon, daemonis (m.) (originally a neutral word, later in the sense of "demon"); genius, -i (m., for men) or iuno, iunonis (f., for women) (personal guardian spirit and fertility principle); numen, numinis ( n.) (divine power, spirit). Cf. "ghost," "soul," "god." -- In the sense of "courage": animus, -i (m.)
  • staff, walking-stick: scipio, -onis (m.); baculum, -i (n.)
  • stake: palus, -i (m.)
  • star: astrum, -i (n.); stella, -ae (f.); sidus, sideris ( n.) (sidus = constellation or heavenly body; or one's "star" in an astrological sense)
  • stone, gem: lapis, lapidis (m.). -- "Philosophers' Stone": lapis philosophicum or lapis philosophorum.
  • storm: tempestas, -tatis (m.) (also can mean "weather" [good or bad] "period of time," or "season"); procella, -ae (f.) ("violent windstorm," "hurricane"; also metaphorically "a sudden violent attack")
  • sun: sol, solis (m.)
  • swiftness: celeritas, celeritatis (f.)
  • sword: gladius, -i (m.), among others. Also ferrum, -i (n.), which means "iron." -- "With fire and sword": ferro ignique (literally the other way around, of course).
  • tear: lacrima, -ae (f.) (i.e., "of blood," or whatever. What comes out when you weep for your sad lot.)
  • temple: templum, -i (n.); aedes, aedium (f. pl.). -- Originally it seems that templum was the consecrated ground, and aedes the structure, but the distinction gradually faded.
  • thirst: sitis, sitis (f.). [Note: the accusative is sitim, and the plural isn't used.]
  • tooth, fang: dens, dentis (m.) (gen. pl. dentium)
  • torch: fax, facis (f.). The fun you could have saying you'll send someone a fax! Except that "torch" would be the direct object and so it'd have to be facem, which ruins it. Never mind. -- fax is all about the fire, and has metaphorical connotations of celebration (wedding torches) as well as ruin (burning villages). lumen, luminis ( n.) is a good catch-all term for "light-source."
  • traitor: proditor, -toris (m.)
  • vampire: vampyrus, -i (m.) (Latinized form of vampyr possibly not used before the 1730s); sanguisuga, -ae (m. or f.) (= "bloodsucker"). Other words for vampire-like creatures include stryx, strigis (f.), lamia, -ae (f.), empusa, -ae (f.), and so on. See my earlier discussion for more information.
  • victim: victima, victimae (f.). -- Specifically a sacrificial victim, a beast for sacrifice.
  • virtue, excellence, manliness, courage: virtus, virtutis (f.)
  • voice, cry, utterance, saying: vox, vocis (f.). -- voces magicae: "magic words," nonsense syllables used in a spell.
  • "voodoo doll": devotio, -onis (f.), more or less.
  • wand: virga, -ae (f.)
  • water: aqua, -ae (f.)
  • war: bellum, belli (n.)
  • weaver : textor, textoris (m.)
  • werewolf: lycanthropus, -i (m.) ("wolf-man," from Greek), versipellis, -is (m. or f.) ("skin-changer").
  • wife: uxor, uxoris (f.). -- Also coniunx, coniugis (f.) (or use "woman")
  • witch, sorceress, poisoner: venefica, -ae (f.); later Latin malefica, -ae (f.) (from maleficus, -a, -um, evil-doing, wicked or criminal); also: saga, -ae (f.) "wise woman"; sortilega, -ae (f.), "lot-reader"; divinatrix, -tricis (f.), "fortune-teller, soothsayer"; etc.
  • witchcraft: veneficium, -i (n.), = "poisoning." See also "magic."
  • wolf: lupus, lupi (m.)
  • woman: femina, -ae (f.) or mulier, mulieris (f.) (femina tends to be used more often, but not exclusively, for upper-class or praiseworthy females)
  • worm: vermis, vermis (m.) [gen. pl. vermium]
  • wraith: see "ghost."
  • wrath, anger: ira, -ae (f.)
  • wrestler: luctator, -oris (m.)
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    These adjectives will fit, with some minor exceptions, into one of two different declension paradigms.

    Those given in the pattern -us, -a, -um are adjectives of the First and Second Declensions and will be declined as you might expect. A few adjectives of this sort have a masculine nominative singular that ends in -er instead of -us, but these are otherwise perfectly safe and normal.

    The others follow the pattern of Third-Declension adjectives. Those given as "-is, -e" adjectives follow the "immortalis" pattern exactly, with masculine and feminine forms identical to one another and neuter forms just a bit different. Some third-declension adjectives (like ferox and sitiens) have identical forms in the nominative singular for all three genders, and change their stem (to feroc- and sitient-, respectively) for the rest of their forms; I have given the genitive for these so you can figure out the stem. (Remember: for the neuter, nominative and accusative forms will be identical to one another.) Other exceptions are noted.

  • afraid: timidus, -a, -um (fearful, cowardly); pavidus, -a, -um (quaking with fear)
  • alone: solus, -a, -um
  • astral, having to do with stars: astralis, -e (not classical)
  • bad, evil: malus, -a, -um ; cf. "wicked."
  • barbaric: barbarus, -a, -um (cf. "savage," "monstrous" etc.)
  • big, great: magnus, -a, -um ; ingens ("huge") (third declension: ingens, ingentis, etc.)
  • bitter, harsh, morose: acerbus, -a, -um
  • black, dark, gloomy: ater, atra, atrum (or niger, nigra, nigrum; ater means more "coal- or flat black" while niger is "dusky or glossy black")
  • black-clad, clothed in black, dressed in clothes of mourning: atratus, -a, -um
  • bloody: sanguineus, -a, -um or cruentus, -a, um ("gory")
  • bony: osseus, -a, -um
  • brave, bold, strong, valiant: fortis, -e
  • bright, gleaming, splendid: splendidus, -a, -um
  • clever, cunning: callidus, -a, -um
  • cruel: crudelis, -e [or see "fierce," "horrible," or "savage" below.]
  • damned, condemned: damnatus, -a, um
  • dangerous: periculosus, -a, -um
  • dead: mortuus, -a, -um
  • enchanted, bewitched: incantatus, -a, -um (of things or people)
  • eternal, everlasting: aeternus, -a, -um
  • ethereal, heavenly: aetherius, -a, -um; caelestis, -e (divine, celestial)
  • fierce, cruel: ferox (third declension: ferox, ferocis, etc.)
  • frenzied, raging, mad: furiosus, -a, -um
  • frightful, terrible: terribilis, -e
  • future, later, subsequent: posterus, -a, -um
  • good:: bonus, -a, -um; probus, -a, -um ("honest, upright"); benevolus, -a, -um ("kind-hearted")
  • green: viridis, -e
  • hated, hateful: invisus, -a, -um (hated by: use the dative case. "hated by the prince": invisus principi).
  • Hermetic: hermeticus, -a, -um
  • high, on high: superus, -a, -um
  • his, her, its, their: suus, -a, -um ("--- own," belonging to the subject of the sentence, but the gender agrees with the thing owned); eius ("of him/her/it") and eorum ("of them"), referring to someone else. -- suus is an adjective; eius and eorum are pronouns in the genitive.
  • holy, sainted: sanctus, -a, -um
  • horrible, hideous; cruel, fierce: atrox (third declension: atrox, atrocis, etc.)
  • hungry: esuriens (third declension: esuriens, esurientis, etc.)
  • immortal, undying: immortalis, -e
  • infernal: infernus, -a, -um
  • infinite, endless: infinitus, -a, um
  • insane: mad, crazy, foolish: insanus, -a, -um
  • lamentable, sorrowful: flebilis, -e; lacrimabilis, -e; luctuosus, -a, -um (see "sad" and "tearful")
  • living, alive: vivus, -a, -um
  • magical, magic, pertaining to magicians: magicus, -a, -um ; magus, -a, -um; cf. "enchanted."
  • masked: personatus, -a, -um (f.)
  • middle, medium: medius, -a, -um -- (Instead of saying "middle of," Latin uses this adjective: media nocte = "in the middle of the night")
  • monstrous: immanis, -e (either size or behavior)
  • mortal: mortalis, -e
  • my, mine: meus, -a, um
  • nocturnal: nocturnus, -a, -um
  • our, ours: noster, nostra, nostrum
  • pale, colorless: pallidus, -a, -um
  • purple: purpureus, -a, -um (This word can also mean "dark red.")
  • posthumous: postumus, -a, -um
  • quick: velox (third declension: velox, velocis, etc.). -- Also celer, celeris, celere.
  • red: ruber, rubra, rubrum
  • sad: tristis, -e
  • savage, cruel: saevus, -a, -um ; see also "cruel," "barbarous," "monstrous" etc.
  • serpentine, snakey: anguineus, -a, -um -- Some more random snakey words: "serpent-bearing": colubrifer, -fera, -ferum or anguifer, -fera, -ferum. -- "serpent-footed" (I guess like the "Clash of the Titans" Medusa or something): anguipes or serpentipes (third decl.: -pes, -pedis etc.).
  • sharp: acutus, -a, -um or acer, acris, acre (third declension; except for masculine nominative singular acer, follow pattern for immortalis, -e). -- [Acer etc. can also mean "sharp" in a metaphorical sense.]
  • stained, polluted, dyed: maculosus, -a, -um or infectus, -a, -um ("with --": use the ablative. "Soil stained with blood": humus infecta [nom.] sanguine [abl.].)
  • tearful, weeping, sad: lacrimosus, -a, -um (see "lamentable" and "sad")
  • thirsty: sitiens (third declension: sitiens, sitientis, etc.)
  • treacherous, false, faithless: perfidus, -a, -um
  • true: verus, -a, -um
  • unspeakable, abominable: nefandus, -a, -um
  • untrustworthy, faithless: infidelis, -e -- Also as a noun, infidelis, -is, "infidel."
  • venal, corruptible: venalis, -e
  • white: albus, -a, -um; candidus, -a, -um ("gleaming-white," "shining")
  • wicked, criminal, depraved, evil: improbus, -a, -um ("wicked, shameless"); pravus, -a, -um ("crooked, perverse"); scelerosus, -a, -um ("criminal"); vitiosus, -a, -um ("full of faults/vices"). -- cf. "bad."
  • wounded: saucius -a, -um
  • your, yours: tuus, -a, -um (belonging to more than one person: vester, vestra, vestrum)

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    Provided here are the first-person singular ("I ---"), the third-person singular ("he/she/it ---"), and the infinitive ("to ---"). Most Latin dictionaries provide the first-person singular and the infinitive, followed by the first-person perfect ("I have ---ed") and the perfect passive participle ("---ed"), which last two aren't generally provided here.

    The "I" and "he/she/it" parts are built into the verb; you don't need separate words except for clarity or emphasis. As for the infinitive, you can't use it to express purpose (as I have just done in English with "to express"), but it happily fills out expressions like "I want to ---" or "I am able to ---," and works as a nominative noun sometimes ("To err is human") (treat it as neuter).

    If you wish to go on a serious voyage into the exciting world of Latin verbs, you're better off buying a real textbook and going at it that way, although your favorite search engine will take you to conjugation paradigms (nouns decline, verbs conjugate) on the web, but these may or may not be intelligible on their own.

  • be: sum, I am; est, (he/she it) is; esse, to be. [Note that you don't use a form of sum to say, e.g., "I am biting"; that's just mordeo.]
  • bite: mordeo, I bite; mordet, (he/she/it) bites; mordere, to bite
  • break: rumpo, I break; rumpit, (he/she/it) breaks; rumpere, to break
  • burn/kindle: incendo, I burn; incendit, (he/she/it) burns; incendere, to burn [Incendo means "to start a fire" (or, figuratively, to inflame or excite). You wouldn't use it it say, "I burn! I burn!" when the sunlight hits you; that would be, in the forms I'm providing here, ardeo ardet ardere.]
  • can, be able: possum, I can, I am able; potest, (he/she/it) can; posse, to be able. [To say "I can ---" use possum + the infinitive (the "to ---" form): "I can slay" = possum necare. For "can't," throw in a non before possum.]
  • command, order: iubeo, I command; iubet, (he/she/it) commands; iubere, to command. -- Also (more commonly later) spelled jubeo, etc. -- Usually followed by a direct object (accusative) and infinitive: Iubeo te venire = "I order you to come.".
  • come: venio, I come; venit, (he/she/it) comes; venire, to come. [As a command, veni! or plural venite!]
  • conceal: celo, I conceal, keep secret; celat, (he/she/it) conceals; celare, to conceal
  • consume, devour, drain,: haurio, I consume; haurit (he/she/it) consume; haurire, to consume
  • corrupt, bribe, break apart: corrumpo, I corrupt; corrumpit, (he/she/it) corrupts; corrumpere, to corrupt
  • create: creo, I create;creat, (he/she/it) creates; creare, to create
  • creep, crawl: serpo, I creep;serpit, (he/she/it) creeps; serpere, to creep
  • destroy, lose, ruin: perdo, I destroy;perdit, (he/she/it) destroys; perdere, to destroy. -- Te di deaeque omnes perduint, "May all the gods and goddesses destroy you."
  • die: morior, I die; moritur, (he/she/it) dies; mori, to die -- ["die!" (as a command): morere! (to one person), morimini! (to more than one person, if you're feeling particularly vicious)]
  • drink: bibo, I drink;bibit, (he/she/it) drinks; bibere, to drink
  • eat: ceno, I dine on, I eat; cenat, (he/she/it) dines on, eats; cenare, to dine on, to eat. -- [You can also use mordeo (bite). There's also a vexing but probably more commonly used word edo which is easily mixed up with two other verbs, including forms of sum, and so I'll skip it for now, except to mention the useful phrase pugnos esto! (for plural victims, estote!), "eat fists!"]
  • enchant, bewitch, cast a spell on: incanto, I enchant; incantat, (he/she/it) enchants; incantare, to enchant.
  • fear/be afraid: timeo, I fear; timet (he/she/it) fears; timere, to fear, be afraid -- [timeo by itself: "I am afraid"; timeo larvas (or another noun in the accusative case): "I am afraid of/I fear ghosts"]
  • give: do, I give; dat, (he/she/it) gives; dare, to give. [Often you will need an accusative direct object -- the thing being given -- and a dative indirect object, the person being given to: Marius sanguinem filio dat, "Marius gives blood to his son."] Also provided in a previous installment: I gave, dedi; (he/she/it) gave, dedit.
  • have: habeo, I have; habet, (he/she/it) has; habere, to have.
  • hate: odi, I hate; odit, (he/she/it) hates; odisse, to hate
  • hunger for/be hungry: esurio, I hunger; esurit (he/she/it) hungers; esurire, to hunger -- [esurio by itself: "I am hungry"; esurio carnem (or another noun in the accusative case): "I hunger for flesh" (no separate word used here for "for")]
  • hunt: venor, I hunt; venatur, (he/she/it) hunts; venari, to hunt
  • lead: duco, I lead; ducit, (he/she/it) leads; ducere, to lead. -- See also "rule.".
  • lick: lambo, I lick; lambit, (he/she/it) licks; lambere, to lick
  • live: vivo, I live; vivit, (he/she/it) lives; vivere, to live
  • love: amo, I love; amat, (he/she/it) loves; amare, to love
  • lurk: lateo, I lurk; latet (he/she/it) lurks; latere, to lurk, hide, be concealed
  • obey: oboedio, I obey; oboedit, (he/she/it) obeys; oboedire, to obey. -- The object of the verb is, contrary to what you might expect, in the dative: Oboedio legi = "I obey the law." .
  • read: lego, I read; legit, (he/she/it) reads; legere, to read.
  • rule, direct: rego, I rule; regit, (he/she/it) rules; regere, to rule. -- Transitive verb; requires a direct object..
  • rule, be king: regno, I rule; regnat, (he/she/it) rules; regnare, to rule. -- Transitive or intransitive verb. Without direct object: Marius regnat = "Marius rules; Marius is king.".
  • slay, kill: neco, I kill/slay; necat, (he/she/it) kills; necare, to kill. [To utter arcane threats it will be useful to know a future tense form here: necabo, "I will kill."]
  • thirst for/be thirsty: sitio, I thirst, am thirsty; sitit, (he/she/it) thirsts; sitire, to thirst -- [sitio by itself: "I am thirsty"; sitio sanguinem (or another noun in the accusative case): "I thirst for blood" (no separate word used here for "for")]
  • want: volo, I want; vult, (he/she/it) wants; velle, to want. -- "What do you want?" = quid vis? ("I want a pony": volo eculeum [accusative < eculeus, -i (m.)]. "I want to kill": volo necare (infinitive). "I want to kill a pony": volo necare eculeum.) -- [The opposite of volo is nolo, I don't want; non vult, (he/she/it) does not want; nolle, not to want, to be unwilling.]
  • ward off, avert, keep off : arceo, I ward off; arcet, (he/she/it) wards off; arcere, to ward off
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  • about, concerning: de (+ ablative)
  • alas: heu!or eheu!
  • always: semper
  • among/between: inter (followed by the accusative case)
  • and: et (both ... and: et ... et)
  • beneath, under: sub (followed by the ablative case)
  • but:sed
  • I: ego (but "I" is included in the meaning of first-person verbs, so you need only add it for emphasis)
  • in: in (followed by the ablative case)
  • into, in (followed by the accusative case)
  • me: me (accusative and ablative), mihi (dative)
  • no: minime ("not at all"), minime vero ("no indeed"), or non plus a repetition of the word in the question (see below, "A note on questions").
  • nor: nec (neither ... nor: nec ... neque)
  • not: non
  • only: solum (also tantum, and others). (not only ... but also: non solum ... sed etiam)
  • or: aut (either ... or: aut ... aut)
  • therefore: igitur (usually the second, not the first word in its clause)
  • truly, indeed, in truth, forsooth!: vero
  • we/us: nos (nom. and acc.), nostri (gen.; but usually youwill use the adjective noster), nobis (dat. and abl.)
  • why: cur?
  • with: cum (followed by the ablative case), but sometimes you don't use cum, and there are weird rules and exeptions, but the basics are to use cum for: (1) People (accompaniment): "I am lurking with Marius": lateo cum Mario, and (2) Abstract concepts, answering "in what manner?": "He kills with great swiftness": necat cum magna celeritate (and often in this sort of sentence cum is stuck between the adjective and the noun: you've heard of magna cum laude: "In what manner did you graduate?" "I graduated with great praise."). -- For tools, objects, the instrument by which something is done: the ablative, without cum. "I can kill Marius with my teeth": Marium necare possum dentibus meis.
  • with me, mecum ("with us": nobiscum)
  • with you, tecum ("with y'all": vobiscum)
  • without, sine (followed by ablative)
  • woe! vae!, followed by the dative: woe is me = "vae mihi!"; "woe to you!" = "vae tibi!", "woe to mortal men!" = "vae mortalibus [hominibus]!", and so on. -- Also useful, not using vae: "oh, wretched me!" = "me miserum!" or "ei misero mihi!"
  • yes: ita ("so"), sane ("of course"), certe ("certainly") -- although often the verb from the question is just repeated. (See below, "A note on questions").
  • you: tu (nom.), tui (gen.: but usually you will use the adjective tuus), tibi (dative), te (accusative and ablative). Plural: vos (nom. and acc.), vestri (gen.; normally use adjective vester), vobis (dative and ablative).
  • A note on questions: When not introduced with a word like cur ("why?"), questions in Latin often use an "enclitic" ("leaning-on") word -ne, which is attached to the first important word of the sentence, usually a verb. So: "Does he have a stake?" = "Habetne palum?" (or "palumne habet?"), to which the answers would be either "habet" (or "ita sane / certe" or "ita sane / certe habet") for "yes," or "non habet" (or "minime" or "minime habet") for "no."

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    Declension paradigms

    First- and second-declension adjectives: Aeternus, -a, -um

    case masculine feminine neuter
    nominative aeternus aeterna aeternum
    genitive aeterni aeternae aeterni
    dative aeterno aeternae aeterno
    accusative aeternum aeternam aeternum
    ablative aeterno aeterna aeterno

    case masculine feminine neuter
    nominative aeterni aeternae aeterna
    genitive aeternorum aeternarum aeternorum
    dative aeternis aeternis aeternis
    accusative aeternos aeternas aeterna
    ablative aeternis aeternis aeternis

    Third declension I-stem: Vespertilio, -onis (m.)
    Case Singular Plural
    nominative (subject or predicate noun after "is" etc.) vespertilio vespertiliones
    genitive ("of ---") vespertilionis vespertilionum
    dative (indirect object; 

    "to/for ---")

    vespertilioni vespertilionibus
    accusative (direct object or object of preposition) vespertilionem vespertiliones
    ablative (object of preposition or by itself to mean "from/by/with ---") vespertilione vespertilionibus

    Third declension I-stem: Nox, noctis (f.)
    Case Singular Plural
    nominative (subject or predicate noun after "is" etc.) nox noctes
    genitive ("of ---") noctis noctium
    dative (indirect object; 

    "to/for ---")

    nocti noctibus
    accusative (direct object or object of preposition) noctem noctes
    ablative (object of preposition or by itself to mean "from/by/with ---") nocte noctibus

    Third declension neuter: Numen, numinis (m.)

    Remember that nominative and accusative forms of neuter nouns are always identical.

    Case Singular Plural
    nominative (subject or predicate noun after "is" etc.) numen numina
    genitive ("of ---") numinis numinum
    dative (indirect object; 

    "to/for ---")

    numini numinibus
    accusative (direct object or object of preposition) numen numina
    ablative (object of preposition or by itself to mean "from/by/with ---") numine numinibus

    Third-declension adjectives: immortalis, -e

    The nominative singular forms will always be as given, changing depending on the adjective (i.e., they won't necessarily end in -is or -e as here), which is why the endings aren't underlined. Neuter accusative singular is the same as neuter nominative singular.

    case masculine/


    nominative immortalis immortale
    genitive immortalis immortalis
    dative immortali immortali
    accusative immortalem immortale
    ablative immortali immortali

    case masculine/


    nominative immortales immortalia
    genitive immortalium immortalium
    dative immortalibus immortalibus
    accusative immortales immortalia
    ablative immortalibus immortalibus

    I suppose for convenience I will show you how a word like atrox, which has identical forms for all three genders in the nominative singular and changes its stem, fits into this scheme:

    case masculine/


    nominative ferox ferox
    genitive ferocis ferocis
    dative feroci feroci
    accusative ferocem ferox
    ablative feroci feroci

    case masculine/


    nominative feroces ferocia
    genitive ferocium ferocium
    dative ferocibus ferocibus
    accusative feroces ferocia
    ablative ferocibus ferocibus

    See what I mean? It's all the same deal, really.

    Fourth-declension masculine/feminine: Spiritus, -us (m.)

    This is a new one, unless you clicked on the off-site declension paradigm last time. A note to people who will miss them: as in other declensions, I have not marked long vowels here. Does that make me a bad person?

    Case Singular Plural
    nominative (subject or predicate noun after "is" etc.) spiritus spiritus
    genitive ("of ---") spiritus spirituum
    dative (indirect object; 

    "to/for ---")

    spiritui spiritibus
    accusative (direct object or object of preposition) spiritum spiritus
    ablative (object of preposition or by itself to mean "from/by/with ---") spiritu spiritibus

    domus, domus (or domi) (f.), "house"

    Domus is a weird word: it is partly declined like a second-declension noun, partly like one of the fourth declension:








    domus or domi



    domui or domo




    domos or domus




    There's also a special form domi which means "at home," and also domum by itself meaning "home(wards)" (as in, "I'm going home").

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    Contact: praefectus [at] latinforgamers [dot] net

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